The northeast regional states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura, are bestowed with rich biodiversity and fisheries resources. More than 90% of the people here are fish-eaters. The fish production in this region is over 0.214 million tons, with almost 50% coming from pisciculture. The region has rich and manifold aquatic resources due to the climatic conditions in the plains of Brahmaputra and Barak valleys of Assam. These rivers form the unparalleled resource for the fisheries to thrive and bloom. The region has many rivers, coldwater streams, wetlands from floodplains, reservoirs, lakes, ponds, paddy fields, and mini-barrages which support the large-scale fishery activities done here.
- There are 266 species of fish in the region and among them, Indian major carps and Chinese carps are the major food fish species.
- The annual production of fish in this region is 213,996 metric tons from both cultured and captured types.
- Monoculture of silver carp or common carp is done by the fishermen and sometimes mixed culture of exotic carps is also done.
- Paddy-cum-fish culture is very commonly seen in this region.
- Rice-fish culture or integrated fish farming frequently done by the tribal people of the region is the culture of common carp stocked in paddy fields and grown in a time period of 4-6 months.
- The traditional “Hapa” breeding plays the most dominant part in seed production.
- Chinese hatcheries are the most common seed production system for commercial-scale productions.
- For induction of breeding of major carps, pituitary gland extracts of fishes, synthetic hormone Ovaprim, Ovatide, etc. is used.
- Epizootic ulcerative syndrome is a deadly disease which does affect the fishes of this region very frequently.
- Aquatic ecosystem of predator-prey population should be balanced, which in some cases gets disturbed.
Fishery does play a great role in the economic development of the Northeast region. It is a very economically viable commodity and involves more advantages than disadvantages.